Diseases of the respiratory tract

Diseases of the respiratory organs rather diverse and quite frequent.

The causes of respiratory diseases

Consider the main reasons, which result in diseases of the respiratory system. The main reason is the microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, rarely parasites). The leading role belongs to such bacterial pathogens as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bacillus, Mycoplasma, chlamydia, Legionella (these agents cause mainly pneumonia), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, viruses, influenza and respiratory viral infections. Often the disease is caused by one type of agent (mono-infection), but sometimes (old age, AIDS and other immunodeficiency diseases) there can be multiple (extentable).

Also quite often the cause of the defeat of the respiratory system are external allergens. These include:

  • Household allergens - the house dust that contains allergens fungi, insects, Pets, particles of human skin and others. The greatest allergenic properties have mites (the main cause of asthma).
  • Allergens animals, they are contained in the saliva, dander or urine of animals.
  • Allergens mold and yeast fungi, and their spores.
  • Pollen (herbs: nettle, plantain, wormwood flowers: Buttercup, dandelion, poppy, shrubs: wild rose, lilac, trees: birch, poplar, and others), spores of fungi, insect allergens.
  • Professional factors (welding of Nickel salt, evaporation of steel).
  • Food allergens (cow's milk).
  • Drugs (antibiotics, enzymes).

Provoke diseases of the respiratory system air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, benzpyrene and many others), household pollutants, which are contained in modern residential areas (household cleaning products, synthetic materials, varnishes, paints, adhesives), Smoking (active, passive) due to the negative effects of tobacco smoke, the adverse climatic conditions (low temperature, high humidity, strong vibrations or atmospheric pressure).

Also precipitating factors include alcohol abuse, hypothermia, presence of diseases of other organs and systems (diabetes, heart disease), the presence of foci of chronic infection, hereditary, and genetic anomalies and many others.

Symptoms of diseases of the respiratory system.

Shortness of breath, it can be subjective (feeling sick difficulty breathing with nervousness, hysteria), objective (defined research methods, and is characterized by alterations of respiratory rhythm and duration of inhalation and exhalation with emphysema) and combined (objective and subjective shortness of breath joins component with increasing frequency of breath inflammation of the lungs, bronchial lung cancer, tuberculosis). Shortness of breath is physiological (increased physical load), pathological (diseases). It also happens when the inspiratory breathing difficulty (diseases of the larynx, trachea), expiratory difficulty exhaling (with the defeat of the bronchi), and mixed (pulmonary embolism).

The most severe form of dyspnea is dyspnea (acute pulmonary edema). If choking occurs in the form of a sudden attack, it is asthma (bronchial – spasm of the bronchial tubes, the heart as a result of weakened heart function).

The next symptom of respiratory diseases – a cough (reflexive defensive reaction to the accumulation in the larynx, trachea or bronchi of mucus, and foreign body aspirated into the respiratory system). The nature of the cough may be dry, without sputum (laryngitis, dry pleurisy) and wet, with expectoration of different quantity and quality (morning cough, chronic bronchitis, evening cough in pneumonia, nocturnal cough in tuberculosis, cancer). It can also be persistent (inflammation of the larynx, bronchi) and periodic (the flu, acute respiratory infections, pneumonia).

Another symptom is hemoptysis (discharge of blood with phlegm when coughing). It can manifest as diseases of the respiratory system (lung cancer, tuberculosis, lung abscess) and diseases of the cardiovascular system (valvular heart disease). The blood that are released when you cough with sputum can be fresh (red) or changed. Scarlet found in tuberculosis, and ascariasis. When lobar pneumonia in the 2 stage of the disease it is of a rusty color (rusty sputum).

Another thing you can complain about patients is pain. It may be of different origin and localization, character, intensity, duration, connection with the act of breathing, cough and body position.

Research methods.

Properly collected complaints, inspection and competently conducted examination (palpation, auscultation, percussion) – the key to a correct diagnosis. With all this, it is possible to identify additional signs of disease.

Examination revealed pathological forms of the chest (barrel of emphysema, the increase in volume of one half of the thorax in pleurisy, reducing half of the chest when pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonia), type of breathing, frequency, depth, rhythm of respiration.

Palpation assess voice trembling, it can be stressed (pneumonia), weakened (pleurisy).

Percussion can reveal a decrease in the amount of air in the lungs (fibrosis, pulmonary edema), the complete absence of air in a lobe or part thereof (abscess), the increase in air content (emphysema), to determine the boundaries of the lungs.

Auscultation allows you to appreciate the breath (OK it is vesicular, with bronchitis hard), listen to rhonchi ( dry bronchial asthma, humid with pneumonia, lung abscess).